Corruption is unambiguously bad

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To begin with how YOU will define this term “corruption”? Although it may be difficult to define it precisely, it is generally not hard to recognize.  One straightforward definition “The abuse of public office for private gain.” 

The causes of corruption are always contextual, rooted in a country’s policies, bureaucratic traditions, political development, and social history. Still, corruption tends to flourish when institutions are weak and government policies generate rents.

  • Reducing investment and hence growth, by increasing costs and uncertainty;
  • Reducing spending on health and education, because these expenditures do not lend themselves easily to corrupt practices on the part of those who control the budget strings;
  • Reducing spending on operations and maintenance for reasons similar to the point above;
  • Increasing public investment because public projects are easier to manipulate by public officials and private bidders;
  • Reducing the productivity of public investment and infrastructure;
  • Reducing direct foreign investment because corruption acts as a tax—the less predictable the level of corruption (the higher its variance), the greater its impact on foreign investment. A higher variance makes corruption act like an unpredictable and random tax.
  • Reducing tax revenues due to corrupt tax and customs administration

One simple equation for corruption:

C = M + D – A

C (Corruption) = M (Monopoly) + D (Discretion) – A (Accountability)

Effects of Corruption

The adverse economic effects of corruption have been borne out by a number of recent studies, using cross-sectional analysis and corruption indices. These adverse effects are especially severe on private investment and economic growth.

 

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Say “NO” To Stress in case of Financial Emergency

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Have you just been blind-sided by an unexpected financial emergency & don’t know what to do? Whether it’s a job loss, medical expenses or an emergency home repair, an unexpected change in your financial situation can be incredibly stressful. The bills still need to be paid, the utilities need to stay on, and you need to put food on the table, so how should you cope with a financial crisis?

Evaluate the Situation

Take a moment to sit down and carefully evaluate your situation. Running around in a panic won’t solve anything and only lead to additional stress. Understandably, you probably have a million things running through your head and being cool and collected is the last thing on your mind, but the ability to carefully evaluate your situation will ensure you make the right choices.

First, determine what caused this financial emergency. Before you can look at ways to resolve the situation, you need to understand the cause. Is it a sudden loss of income? Mounting expenses that you can’t keep up with? A natural disaster? While each situation can lead to similar burdens, your plan of attack will likely need to address the root of the problem to be effective in the long run.

Prioritize Expenses

Not all expenses are created equal. There are certain bills that need to be paid before others. Some of the most important items to put at the top of your list should be food and shelter. Is it worth risking foreclosure to keep your cable bill current? Obviously not, so carefully examine all of your expenses and determine which are the most important. It isn’t worth paying something that will put you in jeopardy of being unable to pay for a necessity.

Once you’re established which bills are the most important, you can begin looking for expenses to cut out of your budget. While it might not be much fun to cut out some of the things you’re used to, it might be what’s necessary to keep you from slipping into an even deeper financial hole.

Look for ways to cut back or eliminate things completely. Think about those premium movie channels or satellite package. Maybe you can get by without an expensive cell phone plan, or maybe you eliminate your landline telephone completely. If you regularly go out to eat, consider cutting back or eating at home entirely. It doesn’t take much. If you were to only find five different ways to save $20 each month, you’ve instantly freed up $100 that can go towards your important and necessary expenses.

Negotiate With Lenders

If you’re having trouble with credit cards, medical bills, or even your mortgage, the first thing you should do is call your lender. Believe it or not, it’s in their best interest to help you make your payments, even if it means a lower interest rate or extending the terms. People so often wait until they already get severely delinquent before contacting their lenders, and by then they aren’t as willing to work with you. If you know that money is getting tight and you might need help, call them before you get behind.

Calling your credit card company can result in a lower interest rate and in some cases may even lead to a temporary delay in making payments. Reaching out to your mortgage company can lead to a restructuring of your loan. And even when it comes to your utilities like electricity and gas, they usually offer programs to help keep the lights on and make payments affordable if you’re experiencing a hardship. Don’t wait for the threatening letters to start coming in the mail before taking action.

Find Extra Money

Ideally, you want to have some money set aside in an emergency fund to help pay for any unexpected expenses but this isn’t always possible. Where do you turn when you’ve exhausted your savings account?

You can always try to get a loan or use credit cards, but these may only make the problem worse. While borrowing money can provide quick access to cash, it can also come with high interest rates and a new monthly payment. If you’re experiencing a financial hardship for an extended period of time, you may find yourself in a downward spiral that is nearly impossible to recover from.

Another option could be to check with friends and family. Nobody likes to ask for money, but a little bit of help from a loved one might be all that you need to get through the rough patch. Of course this can also put a strain on some relationships, so proceed with caution.

And finally, you may have some money available via investments or in retirement accounts. Generally speaking, withdrawing money from your retirement accounts is a bad idea as it can put your retirement security in jeopardy, but it could also be enough to keep you from going into even further financial trouble…..Image

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What is Parkinson’s disease?

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common movement disorder. It is characterized by progressive loss of muscle control, which leads to trembling of the lPain-09imbs and head while at rest, stiffness, slowness, and impaired balance. As symptoms worsen, it may become difficult to walk, talk, and complete simple tasks.

The progression of Parkinson’s disease and the degree of impairment vary from individual to individual. Many people with Parkinson’s disease live long productive lives, whereas others become disabled much more quickly. Premature death is usually due to complications such as falling-related injuries or pneumonia.

In the United States, about 1 million people are affected by Parkinson’s disease and worldwide about 5 million. Most individuals who develop Parkinson’s disease are 60 years of age or older. Parkinson’s disease occurs in approximately 1% of individuals aged 60 years and in about…

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